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Lodhi Dynasty

Lodhi GardensLodhi Dynasty was a Pashtun dynasty that was the last dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. The dynasty founded by Bahlul Lodhi ruled from 1451 to 1526. The last ruler of this dynasty, Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.
It was during the time of Lodhi Dynasty in Delhi, the first Portuguese Armada under Vasco da Gama landed in India.
Bahlul Lodhi
He was the first king and the founder of the Lodhi dynasty, with a view to restoring the Delhi Sultanate its past glory, he conquered many territories including the powerful kingdom of Jaunpur. Buhlul Khan extended his territories over Gwalior, Jaunpur and upper Uttar Pradesh. He appointed his eldest son Barbak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur in 1486. Buhlul Khan was confused as to who should succeed him among his sons Barbak Shah and Nizam Shah and grandson Azam-i-Humayun.
Sikandar Lodi
Nizam Shah(r.1489–1517), the second son of Bahlul, succeeded him after his death on July 17, 1489 and took up the title Sikandar Shah. He was nominated by his father to succeed him and was crowned sultan on July 15, 1489. He founded a new town in 1504 (where now the modern city of Agra stands) to control the chiefs of Etawab, Biyana, Koli, Gwalior and Dholapur.  He was a poet of repute and composed under the pen-name of Gulruk. He was also patron of learning and ordered Sanskrit work in medicine to be translated into Persian.
Ibrahim Lodi
Sultan Ibrahim Khan Lodhi (1489–1526), the youngest son of Sikandar, was the last Lodhi Sultan of Delhi. Sultan Ibrahim (r.1517–26) was a fearless military leader and kept out the opposition for almost a decade. He was engaged in warfare with the Afghans and the Mughals for most of his reign and died trying to keep the Lodhi Dynasty from annihilation. Sultan Ibrahim was defeated in 1526 at the Battle of Panipat.This marked the end of the Lodi Dynasty and the rise of the Mughal Empire in India led by Babur (r. 1526–1530).
Fall of the Empire
By the time Ibrahim ascended the throne, the political structure in the Lodhi Dynasty had dissolved due to abandoned trade routes and the depleted treasury.
Another problem Ibrahim had when trying to ascend the throne as the next Lodhi emperor was the resistance from a faction of the nobility. They split the Lodhi empire and gave Ibrahim’s older brother, Jalaluddin the area in the east at Jaunpur and gave Ibrahim the area in the west, Delhi.  Sultan Ibrahim being the military man that he was, gathered enough military support and killed his brother. The Afghan nobles tended to be loyal to the Governor of Bihar, Dariya Khan because they wanted him to rule Delhi, not Sultan Ibrahim.Many factions tried to take over the Lodhi throne and this was extremely common during Sultan Ibrahim’s time. Due to the lack of this law of succession, Ibrahim was forced to put down a great deal of these ambitious men. His own uncle, Alam Khan, working off his own ambitions, betrayed Ibrahim because he wanted to rule Delhi.  Alam Kahn decided to place his loyalty in the Mughal emperor, Babur.
Babur claimed to be the true and rightful Monarch of the lands of the Lodhi dynasty. He believed himself the rightful heir to the throne of Timur, and it was Timur who had originally left Khizr Khan in charge of his vassal in the Punjab, who became the leader, or Sultan, of the Delhi Sultanate, founding the Sayyid dynasty. The Sayyid dynasty, however, had been ousted by Ibrahim Lodhi, a Ghilzai Afghan, and Babur wanted it returned to the Timurids.
Not only was Ibrahim threatened by his uncle, Alam Khan, who joined forces with Babur, but he was also threatened by the Rajput leader, Rana Sanga of Mewar (1509–1526). Daulat Khan, the governor of Punjab also spoke with Babur about Sultan Ibrahim. Khan pledged his allegiance to Babur as well. Ibrahim Khan Lodhi was easily threatened because his region was surrounded by several other dynasties and territories.
After being assured of the cooperation of Alam Khan (Ibrahim’s uncle) and Daulat Khan,Governor of the Punjab, Babur gathered his army. Upon entering the Punjab plains, Babur's chief allies, namely Langar Khan Niazi advised Babur to engage the powerful Janjua Rajputs to join his conquest. The tribe's rebellious stance to the throne of Delhi was well known. Upon meeting their chiefs, Malik Hast (Asad) and Raja Sanghar Khan, Babur made mention of the Janjua's popularity as traditional rulers of their kingdom and their ancestral support for his patriarch Amir Timur during his conquest of Hind. Babur aided them in defeating their enemies, the Gakhars in 1521, thus cementing their alliance. Babur employed them as Generals in his campaign for Delhi, the conquest of Rana Sanga and the conquest of India.
Babur wanted to fight Sultan Ibrahim because he wanted Sultan Ibrahim’s power and territory. Babur and his army of 24,000 men marched to the battlefield armed with muskets and artillery. Sultan Ibrahim prepared to fight by gathering 100,000 men (well armed but with no guns) and 1,000 elephants. This is known as the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Ibrahim died in the Battle of Panipat, where Babur's artillery and the desertion of many of Lodi's soldiers led to his downfall, despite superior troop numbers. After his death,  Babur named himself emperor over Sultan Ibrahim’s territory, Sultan Ibrahim’s death lead to the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India. He was the last emperor of the Lodi Dynasty. What was left of his empire was absorbed into the new Mughal Empire.

Lodhi Dynasty

Quit India Movement – 1942

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Quit India Movement

The Quit India Movement was the next major milestone after the Salt Satyagraha in the history of Indian independence struggle. It was a civil disobedience movement launched in August 1942 with Gandhiji’s call for immediate independence. It is also known as the Bharat Chodo Andolan or the August Kranti.

This historical movement played out in the backdrop of World War II. The British government entered India in the war unilaterally and without consultation with the Indian people. This angered Indians terribly. In March 1942, faced with an increasingly dissatisfied sub-continent, only reluctantly participating in the war, the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Cripps, in what came to be known as the Cripps' Mission. The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress a deal to obtain total co-operation during the war, in return of progressive devolution and distribution of power from the crown and the Viceroy to elected Indian legislature. The talks failed because they did not address the key demand of a timetable of self-government and of definition of the powers to be relinquished. It offered only limited dominion-status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.

On July 14, 1942, the Indian National Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence from Britain and massive civil disobedience. On August 8, 1942, the Quit India Resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee.  The British, already alarmed by the advance of the Japanese army to the India/Burma border, responded the next day by imprisoning Gandhi at the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. All the members of the Congress Party's National Leadership were arrested and imprisoned at the Ahmednagar Fort. Due to the arrest of major leaders, a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on August 9, and hoisted the flag. Later, the Congress party was banned. These actions only created sympathy for the cause among the population.  Inspired by Gandhiji’s "Do or Die" speech, the common masses eagerly jumped into the movement, despite lack of direct leadership. Large-scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent and strikes were called. Not all the demonstrations were peaceful. At some places bombs exploded, government buildings were set on fire, electricity was cut, and transport and communication lines were severed.

The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. A total of over 100,000 arrests were made nationwide, mass fines were levied, and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging. Hundreds of resisters and innocent people were killed by police and army fire. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations, distributing pamphlets, and establishing parallel governments. The British sense of crisis was strong enough that a battleship was specifically set aside to take Gandhi and the Congress leaders out of India, possibly to South Africa or Yemen, but such a step was ultimately not taken, out of fear of intensifying the revolt.

The entire Congress leadership was cut off from the rest of the world for over three years. Gandhiji's wife, Kasturba Gandhi, and his personal secretary, Mahadev Desai, died in a short space of months, and Gandhi's own health was failing. Despite this, Gandhi went on a 21-day fast and maintained a superhuman resolve to continue his resistance. Although the British released Gandhiji on account of his failing health in 1944, he kept up the resistance, demanding the complete release of the Congress leadership.

By early 1944, India was mostly peaceful again, while the entire Congress leadership was incarcerated. The movement died down, and when the British granted independence on August 15, 1947, they cited revolts and growing dissatisfaction among Royal Indian Armed Forces during and after the war as the driving force behind Britain's decision to leave India. However, the political experience gained by the Indian people through activities such as the Quit India movement laid the foundation for the strongest enduring tradition of democracy and freedom in post-colonial Africa and Asia.

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Quit India Movement – 1942