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Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was a philosopher, educationist, writer, publisher, reformer, and philanthropist.

He was one of the greatest intellectuals and activists of the 19th century and is considered as one of the pillars of Bengal renaissance. He put in great efforts to carry on the reforms movement which was initiated by Raja Rammohan Roy. Vidyasagar was a staunch follower of humanity. He was instrumental in bringing the revolution the education system of Bengal.

Iswar Chandra Bandopadhaya was born at Birsingha in Midnapur on September 26, 1820. Born in to a poor family of Thakurdas Banerjee and Bhagabati Devi, he was not only remarkably intelligent but was full of determination. His quest for knowledge was so intense that he used to study on street light as his poor parents couldn’t afford a gas lamp at home. He cleared successive annual examinations with flying colors and won many scholarships for his academic performance which were a welcome relief in his impoverished financial condition. He also took up a teaching job to support himself and the family.

In the year 1839, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar successfully cleared his Law examination. In 1841, at the age of twenty one years, Ishwar Chandra joined the Fort William College as a head of the Sanskrit department. He received the title "Vidyasagar" from the Calcutta Sanskrit College, due to his excellent performance in Sanskrit studies and philosophy. This title was mainly given for his vast knowledge in all subjects which was compared to the vastness of the ocean.

He travelled all over Bengal in the capacity of Inspector of Schools. It gave him the opportunity to understand the pervading darkness and superstitions in which people of Bengal lived in the absence of education. It resulted in establishment of 20 Model schools in only two months. He also realized that unless women were educated it was impossible liberate them from the terrible burden of inequalities and injustice.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar initiated the concept of widow remarriage and raised concern for the abolition of child-marriage and polygamy.

Vidyasagar championed the cause of the uplift of the status of women in India.  He was a strong supporter of widow marriages.  He wanted to transform orthodox Hindu society from within.  With valuable moral support from his friends, Vidyasagar introduced the practice of widow remarriages to mainstream Hindu society. In earlier times, remarriages of widows was no so common. There were very few of such marriages used to take place among progressive members of the Brahmo Samāj. During this period, young girls were married to very elderly widowers to. This situation led to many girls becoming widows at a very early age. The life of such young girls was agony. They were subjected to orthodox rituals which included semi starvation diet, rigid and dangerous daily ritual of cleanliness, hard domestic labor. Some of them used to run away and turned to prostitution.  Vidyasagar took the initiative in proposing and pushing through the Widow Remarriage Act XV of 1856 in India. He also demonstrated that the system of polygamy without restriction was not sanctioned by the ancient Hindu religion. His fearless championing on behalf of widow re-marriage ends in success. He failed to get the abolition of polygamy though succeeded in the imparting female education.

He spent most of his time in writing reformist literature and text books, his pioneering work in Bengali prose certainly deserves the very best of appreciation. His simplification of idiomatic expressions and clarification of the writing style provided the sound base on which latter Bengali writers like Tekchand Thakur, Pyarichand Mitra and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee built their literary superstructures. Indeed, Tagore revered him as 'the father of modern Bengali prose'

His efforts to simplify and modernize Bengali prose were significant. He also rationalized and simplified the Bengali alphabet and type.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, the great scholar, academician and reformer passed away on 29 July, 1891 at the age of 70 years. After his death Rabindranath Tagore said, "One wonders how God, in the process of producing forty million Bengalis, produced a man!"

Vidyasagar promoted the idea of best education for everybody regardless of their gender, caste and class.

In the face of opposition from the Hindu establishment, Vidyasagar vigorously promoted the idea that regardless of their caste, both men and women should receive the best education. He truly believed that people should learn the more progressive sibj in remarkable clarity of vision is instanced by his brilliant plea for teaching of science, mathematics and the philosophies of John Locke and David Hume, to replace most of ancient Hindu philosophy. His own books, written for primary school children, reveal a strong emphasis on enlightened materialism, with scant mention of God and religious verities – a fact that posits him as a pioneer of the Indian Renaissance.

Shortly after Vidyasagar's death, Rabindranath Tagore reverently wrote about him: "One wonders how God, in the process of producing forty million Bengalis, produced a man!" 

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Dr. Anandibai Joshi

Anandhibai JoshiDr. Anadibai Joshi was one of the first Indian woman to receive education abroad and obtain a medical degree through Western medicine. Anadibai was born in 1865 in a very conservative Maharashtrian family. That time, most of the Indian families were orthodox and education among women was not common. As per the customs then, she was married at a very young age of 9 years to a very elderly widower who was 20 years older to her.  Her husband Gopal Rao  was a progressive thinker, and supported the education of women, which was not very prevalent in India.

Noticing Anandibai's interest in acquiring education, he helped her receive education and learn English. He took it on himself to teach her English. Gopal would take his young wife for long walks during which his teaching sessions continued. He was convinced that learning English was more important than learning Sanskrit. But Anandibai confessed that learning from her husband was not easy. He would hit her with pieces of wood or books. At a very young age of 14,  she gave birth to their first and only child. The infant survived only 10 days, but in her grief Anandi turned her thoughts to what could have been done to save her child: she became convinced that if there had been a female doctor available, the child might have lived. At 14, she became determined to become a doctor.

Gopalrao encouraged his wife to study medicine. He wanted to send her abroad for medical studies, even though they had no money. He wrote to a missionary friend Royal Wilder in the US, asking for help to admit Anandibai to a medical school, and also find a job for himself. They offered the help only on the condition that the couple would convert to Christianity. But They declined the offer. Wilder published the correspondence in his publication, Princeton's Missionary Review. A woman named Theodosia Carpenter happened to read the correspondence and was very impressed with the couple. She wrote a letter to Anandibai stating her desire to offer Anandibai accommodation in USA. They exchanged many letters discussing Hindu culture and religion. They also discussed about early marriages and its effect on women’s health, of the status of women in society and various other women’s issues.

During the couple's stay in Calcutta, Anandibai's health was declining. She suffered from weakness, constant headaches, occasional fever, and, sometimes, breathlessness. The medicines that Theodosia sent did not do much good. In 1883, Gopalrao was transferred to Serampore, and at that time, he decided to send Anandibai alone to America for her medical studies despite her poor health. Anadibai was not ready, however, Gopalrao was determined to send her to America.

The couple's decision made the conservative Hindu community furious.  They became the target of the anger of these people and at times were also attacked. Anandibai addressed the community at Serampore College Hall. She promised the crowd that she would not covert. She explained them the pressing need for Hindu female doctors. After her return form America, she was planning to open a medical college for  women in India. She received many financial aids after her speech.

So in June 1883 at the age of nineteen, a frail but determined Anandibai set her jouney to USA, along with two friends of Theodosia. She got admission to the first Women’s Medical Program offered by the University of Pennsylvania. She even won a scholarship of $ 600/- for three years. Her dissertation was on “Obstetrics among the Hindu Aryans.”

But the unbearable cold and the unfamiliar diet took a toll on her already declining health. She contracted tuberculosis. But she was determined to complete her Medicine studies.  She graduated with an M.D. on March 11, 1886. Her husband and a social reformer Pandita Ramabai were present at this function. Even Queen Victoria sent her a congratulatory message. The Philadelphia Post wrote, “Little Mrs. Joshee who graduated with high honours in her class, received quite an ovation.”

She returned to India and was appointed as 'the physician-in-charge' of the female ward of the local Albert Edward Hospital, Kolhapur. But it was unfortunate that Anadibai could not fulfill her dreams of providing her services to the women in India.   The illness took over and she died at the early age of 22 in February 26th, 1887. Her death was mourned all over India. Her ashes were sent to Theodicia Carpeer, who placed them in her family cemetery in Poughkeepsie, New York.

Anadibai is a true inspiration to all the young girls who strive hard to get education. She has made us believe that dreams are within your reach, if your are determined.



 

Dr. Anandibai Joshi

Raja Ram Mohan Roy

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Raja Ram Mohan Roy was an Indian socio-educational reformer who challenged traditional Hindu culture and led conservative Indian society towards progressing India. He is also called the "Maker of Modern India" He founded the Brahmo Samaj at Calcutta in 1828, which was initially known as the "Brahmo Sabha." Raja Rammohan Roy was a great scholar and an independent thinker. He advocated the study of English, Science, Western Medicine and Technology. He was given the title 'Raja' by the Mughal Emperor.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in a Bengali Hindu family in Radhanagore, Hooghly, West Bengal 1772. His family background displayed religious diversity; his father Ramkanto Roy was a Vaishnavite, while his mother Tarinidevi was from a Shaivite family. He  was sent to Patna for higher studies. By the age of fifteen, he had learnt Bangla, Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit. He studied Hindu scriptures like the Vedas, the Upanishadas etc. and books of other religions. He joined the service of the East India Company in 1805 and gradually rose to high offices.

He left the Company to devote his time to the service of his people. Profoundly influenced by European liberalism, Ram Mohan came to the conclusion that radical reform was necessary in the religion of Hinduism and in the social practices of the Hindus.

In 1814, Raja Ram Mohan Roy formed Atmiya Sabha. Atmiya Sabha tried to initiate social and religious reforms in the society. Raja Ram Mohan Roy campaigned for rights for women, including the right for widows to remarry, and the right for women to hold property. He actively opposed Sati system. Roy demanded property inheritance rights for women.

At that time, only Sanskrit and Persian were taught in our schools. There were very few to tell us anything about Western Science. But even they were in English. And our people did not know English. It was the great Raja Rammohan Roy, who realized that India would be a backward country, if people did not learn English, Mathematics and Science. He advocated the study of English, Science, Western Medicine and Technology.

So, in 1815, Ram Mohan came to Calcutta and the very next year, started an English College by putting his own savings. He was well aware that the students should learn the English language and scientific subjects and that's why he criticized the government's policy of opening only Sanskrit schools. Government accepted this idea of Ram Mohan and also implemented it but not before his death.

In 1828, he set up the Brahmo Sabha, which was a movement of reformist Bengalis formed to fight against social evils. He attacked the caste system and campaigned to persuade the Government to abolish 'Sati' system and child marriage. He advocated equal rights for women, right of widows to remarry and right of women to property.  It was as a result of his persistent campaign that the cruel custom of Sati, the practice of encouraging--and often forcing--widows to burn themselves alive on their husband's funeral pyres was declared illegal in 1829 A.D. by Lord William Bentick.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first social reformer of Modern India and he is rightly called the 'Father of Modern India'. He had a rational and scientific approach and believed in the principle of human dignity and social equality. He was a perfect combination of the East and the West.

He condemned polytheism and idol worship and propagated the concept of one God. His religious ideas had assimilated elements of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and modern European liberal philosophy. He translated ancient Indian works on religion and philosophy into Bengali.

He was internationalist and supported the cause of freedom everywhere. He celebrated the success of the 1830 Revolution in France and condemned the Britishers who were inflicting miseries on Ireland.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy, during his visit to United Kingdom as an ambassador of Akbar- the second, died of meningitis at Stapleton in Bristol on 27 September, 1833. At the time, Roy was an ambassador of the Mughal emperor Akbar II, who conferred on him the title of Raja to convince the British government for welfare of India and to ensure that the Lord Bentick's regulation banning the practice of Sati was not overturned.


Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Kiran Bedi - First Woman Officer in IPS

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If you have been associated with India in the 1980s and 1990s, there is a good chance you have heard of super cop Kiran Bedi.

Born on June 9, 1949, Kiran Bedi became the first woman officer in the IPS (Indian Police Service) in 1972. She was born in Amritsar, Punjab to parents Prakash Peshawaria and Prem Peshawaria. She is the second of four daughters. Her three sisters are; Shashi, an artist settled in Canada, Reeta, a clinical psychologist and writer, and Anu, a lawyer. She attended the Sacred Heart Convent School, Amritsar, where she joined the NCC (National Cadet Corps). She took up tennis and won the Junior National Lawn Tennis Championship in 1966, the Asian Lawn Tennis Championship in 1972, and the All-India Interstate Women's Lawn Tennis Championship in 1976. In addition, she also won the All-Asian Tennis Championship, and won the Asian Ladies Title at the age of 22.

On the personal front, in 1972, Kiran Bedi married Brij Bedi, a textile machine manufacturer whom she met at the Amritsar tennis courts. In 1975, they had daughter Saina, who is now also involved in community service. In one of her lectures to a corporate meeting, Kiran Bedi expressed her belief that everyone in society has an important role to play which will enable others to fulfill their duties (or important tasks), quoting the example of her uneducated housemaid whose help in Bedi's daily household work had helped Bedi to complete an important task of writing a book.

She earned her Bachelor of Arts in English (Hons.) from the Government College for Women, Amritsar in 1968. She then earned a Master’s degree in Political Science from Punjab University, graduating at the top of her class in 1970. She later obtained a Bachelors degree in Law in 1988 from University of Delhi. In 1993, she obtained a Ph.D. in Social Sciences from the Department of Social Sciences, IIT – Delhi, where the topic of her thesis was 'Drug Abuse and Domestic Violence’.

She began her career as a Lecturer in Political Science at Khalsa College for Women, Amritsar. In 1972, she joined the IPS and served on a number of tough assignments ranging from New Delhi traffic postings, Deputy Inspector General of Police in Mizoram, Advisor to the Lieutenant Governor of Chandigarh, Director General of Narcotics Control Bureau, to a United Nations delegation, where she became the Civilian Police Advisor in United Nations peacekeeping operations. For her work in the UN, she was awarded a UN medal. She is popularly referred to as Crane Bedi for towing the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's car for a parking violation, during the PM's tour of United States at the time.

Kiran Bedi influenced several decisions of the Indian Police Service, particularly in the areas of Narcotics Control, Traffic management, and VIP security. During her stint as the Inspector General of Prisons, in Tihar Jail (1993–1995), she instituted a number of reforms in the management of the prison, and initiated a number of measures such as detoxification programs, Art of Living Foundation Prison Courses, yoga, vipassana meditation, and literacy programs. For this she won the 1994 Ramon Magsaysay Award, and the 'Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship', to write about her work at Tihar Jail.

She was last appointed as Director General of India's Bureau of Police Research and Development. In December 2007, she voluntarily retired from the police force to undertake new challenges in life.

In May 2005, she was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Law in recognition of her “humanitarian approach to prison reforms and policing”.

Kiran Bedi has also been involved in social causes for a long time. She along with 17 other police officers set up the Navjyoti India Foundation (NIF) in 1987. It started with a de-addiction and rehabilitation initiative for drug addicts. Now the organization has expanded to other social issue like illiteracy and women empowerment. In 1994, Bedi setup India Vision Foundation which works in the field of police reforms, prison reforms, women empowerment and rural and community development. Her efforts have won national and international recognition, and her organizations were awarded the "Serge Soitiroff Memorial Award" for drug abuse prevention by the United Nations.

More recently, Kiran Bedi has been prominently involved with the India Against Corruption (IAC) movement along with Anna Hazare and Arvind Kejriwal. IAC has been actively protesting against corruption and is urging the government of India to enact a strong Lokpal Bill.

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Kiran Bedi - First Woman Officer in IPS

Guru Rabindranath Tagore

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Rabindranath Tagore is one of the most famous sons on Bengal, and India. Born on May 7, 1861, he was the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. He is credited with reshaping Bengali literature and music by introducing new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language. Rabindra Sangeet can be considered a product of the changes he brought about.

Growing up in Calcutta (now Kolkata), Tagore started writing poetry at a very early age. At age 16, he released his first collection of poems under the pseudonym Bhanusiṃha (‘Sun Lion’). Soon he started writing short stories and dramas, this time using his real name. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced), and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are amongst his most popular works. But his real claim to fame across all of India and internationally was that two of his compositions were chosen by two nations as their National anthems: Jana Gana Mana became India’s National anthem and and Amar Shonar Bangla was adopted by Bangladesh. The composer of Sri Lanka's national anthem, Sri Lanka Matha was a student of Tagore, and the song is inspired by Tagore's style.

The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born in Calcutta to parents Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. The Tagore family patriarchs were the Brahmo founders of the Adi Dharm faith. Debendranath had formulated the Brahmoist philosophies espoused by his friend Ram Mohan Roy, and became focal in Brahmo society after Roy's death.

Rabindranath was raised mostly by servants; his mother had died in his early childhood and his father travelled widely. His home hosted the publication of literary magazines; theatre and recitals of both Bengali and Western classical music featured there regularly. Tagore's oldest brother Dwijendranath was a respected philosopher and poet. Another brother, Satyendranath, was the first Indian appointed to the elite and formerly all-European Indian Civil Service. Yet another brother, Jyotirindranath, was a musician, composer, and playwright. His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist. Jyotirindranath's wife Kadambari, slightly older than Tagore, was a dear friend and powerful influence.

Tagore was never fond of formal education. However, he enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England in 1878 honoring his father’s wish of seeing him become a barrister (lawyer). Eventually, in 1880 he returned to Bengal without a degree. In 1883 he married Bhabatarini Devi, later renamed as Mrinalini Devi. They had five children together before Mrinalini Devi’s death in 1902.

In 1901 Tagore moved to Shantiniketan and founded an ashram with an experimental school, groves of trees, gardens, and a library. He published Naivedya (1901) and Kheya (1906) during that time and translated poems into free verse. In November 1913, Tagore won the Nobel Prize in Literature for a small body of translated material from his 1912 creation - Gitanjali (Song Offerings). In 1915, the British Crown granted Tagore knighthood. He renounced it after the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

In 1921, Tagore and agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst set up the "Institute for Rural Reconstruction", later renamed Shriniketan or "Abode of Welfare. He sought aid from donors, officials, and scholars worldwide to free villages from the shackles of helplessness and ignorance by providing knowledge. In the early 1930s he targeted the social issue of untouchability. He lectured against this practice and campaigned successfully to open the Guruvayoor Temple to Dalits (untouchables).

Tagore’s literary work continued abundantly during the last decade of his life. Some of the notable prose-poem works include Punashcha (1932), Shes Saptak (1935), Patraput (1936). Experimentation continued in his prose-songs and dance-dramas:  Shyama (1939), and Chandalika (1938); and in his novels: Dui Bon (1933), Malancha (1934), and Char Adhyay (1934).

Rabindranath Tagore died on August 7, 1941.

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Guru Rabindranath Tagore

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